Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a state of high blood sugar due to inadequate insulin production or insulin action with or without insulin resistance.


  • Usually None (picked up on health screening)
  • Increased thirst (Polydipsia)
  • Increased frequency and volume of urine (Polyuria)
  • Increased appetite and hunger (Polyphagia)
  • Unexplained weight loss in severe cases
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent infection (usually skin, genital or urinary)
  • Fatigue

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

  • Type 2 diabetes (90-95%)
  • Type 1 diabetes (5-10%)
  • Gestational diabetes or diabetes in pregnancy
  • Specific types – steroids induced hyperglycemia, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer etc.

Complications/Long term problems of Diabetes Mellitus

  • Eye – cataract and retinopathy, and in severe cases – blindness
  • Kidney – proteinuria and nephropathy, and in severe cases – kidney failure
  • Feet – numbness, ulcers and infections, and in severe cases – requiring amputation
  • Ischemic heart disease, heart failure and cardiac-related morbidity and mortality
  • Increase in stroke risk
  • Increase in cancer risk
  • Increase in dementia risk

Management of diabetes mellitus encompass

  • Understanding the type of diabetes mellitus
  • Individualizing therapy to specific needs
  • Personalized dietary and lifestyle advice
  • Judicious use of medications and drugs to treat diabetes and prevent complications
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